Improved BGP Convergence via Ghost Flushing

Yehuda Afek, Anat Bremler-Barr, Shemer Schwarts
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications ,


Labovitz et al. (2001) and Labovitz et al. (2000) noticed that sometimes it takes border gateway protocol (BGP) a substantial amount of time and messages to converge and stabilize following the failure of some node in the Internet. In this paper, we suggest a minor modification to BGP that eliminates the problem pointed out and substantially reduces the convergence time and communication complexity of BGP. Roughly speaking, our modification ensures that bad news (the failure of a node/edge) propagate fast, while good news (the establishment of a new path to a destination) propagate somewhat slower. This is achieved in BGP by allowing withdrawal messages to propagate with no delay as fast as the network forward them, while announcements propagate as they do in BGP with a delay at each node of one minRouteAdver (except for the first wave of announcements). As a by product of this work, a new stateless mechanism to overcome the counting to infinity problem is provided, which compares favorably with other known stateless mechanisms (in RIP and IGRP).

  author={Afek, Y. and Bremler-Barr, A. and Schwarz, S.},
  journal={IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications}, 
  title={Improved BGP convergence via ghost flushing},