One MUD to Rule Them All: IoT Location Impact (short paper)

Anat Bremler-Barr, Bar Meyuhas, Ran Shister
Conferences & Workshops
Internet of Things (IoT)


Analyzing the network behavior of IoT devices, including which domains, protocols, and ports the device communicates with, is a fundamental challenge for IoT security and identification. Solutions that analyze and manage these areas must be able to learn what constitutes normal device behavior and then extract rules and features to permit only legitimate behavior or identify the device. The Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) is an IETF white-list protection scheme that formalizes the authorized network behavior in a MUD file; this MUD file can then be used as a type of firewall mechanism.

We demonstrate that learning what is normal behavior for an IoT device is more challenging than expected. In many cases, the same IoT device, with the same firmware, can exhibit different behavior or connect to different domains with different protocols, depending on the device’s geographical location.

Then, we present a technique to generalize MUD files. By processing MUD files that originate in different locations, we can generalize and create a comprehensive MUD file that is applicable for all locations.
To conduct the research, we created MUDIS, a MUD Inspection System tool, that compares and generalizes MUD files. Our open-source MUDIS tool and dataset are available online to researchers and IoT manufacturers, allowing anyone to visualize, compare, and generalize MUD files.


AUTHOR=”Anat Bremler-Barr and Bar Meyuhas and Ran Shister”,
TITLE=”One MUD to Rule Them All: IoT Location Impact”,
BOOKTITLE=”NOMS 2022 – Full and short papers¬† “,